The science section of our website offers a host of categories dealing with the multiude of adverse health conditions exposure to mercury can ellicit.
Mercury has been shown to be a potential causal factor in various autoimmune disorders. Below is an overview of many autoimmune diseases, several of which have are influenced by mercury toxicity.
What are autoimmune diseases?
Our bodies have an immune system, which is a complex network of special cells and organs that defends the body from germs and other foreign invaders. At the core of the immune system is the ability to tell the difference between self and nonself: what’s you and what’s foreign. A flaw can make the body unable to tell the difference between self and nonself. When this happens, the body makes autoantibodies (AW-toh-AN-teye-bah-deez) that attack normal cells by mistake. At the same time special cells called regulatory T cells fail to do their job of keeping the immune system in line. The result is a misguided attack on your own body. This causes the damage we know as autoimmune disease. The body parts that are affected depend on the type of autoimmune disease. There are more than 80 known types.
How common are autoimmune diseases?
Overall, autoimmune diseases are common, affecting more than 23.5 million Americans. They are a leading cause of death and disability. Yet some autoimmune diseases are rare, while others, such as Hashimoto’s disease, affect many people.
Who gets autoimmune diseases?
Autoimmune diseases can affect anyone. Yet certain people are at greater risk, including:
- Women of childbearing age — More women than men have autoimmune diseases, which often start during their childbearing years.
- People with a family history — Some autoimmune diseases run in families, such as lupus and multiple sclerosis. It is also common for different types of autoimmune diseases to affect different members of a single family. Inheriting certain genes can make it more likely to get an autoimmune disease. But a combination of genes and other factors may trigger the disease to start.
- People who are around certain things in the environment — Certain events or environmental exposures may cause some autoimmune diseases, or make them worse. Sunlight, chemicals called solvents, and viral and bacterial infections are linked to many autoimmune diseases.
- People of certain races or ethnic backgrounds — Some autoimmune diseases are more common or more severely affect certain groups of people more than others. For instance, type 1 diabetes is more common in white people. Lupus is most severe for African-American and Hispanic people.
What autoimmune diseases affect women, and what are their symptoms?
The diseases listed here either are more common in women than men or affect many women and men. They are listed in A-to-Z order.
Although each disease is unique, many share hallmark symptoms, such as fatigue, dizziness, and low-grade fever. For many autoimmune diseases, symptoms come and go, or can be mild sometimes and severe at others. When symptoms go away for a while, it’s called remission. Flares are the sudden and severe onset of symptoms.
Types of autoimmune diseases and their symptoms
Alopecia areata (Al-uh-PEE-shuh AR-ee-AYT-uh)
The immune system attacks hair follicles (the structures from which hair grows). It usually does not threaten health, but it can greatly affect the way a person looks.
Antiphospholipid (an-teye-FOSS-foh-lip-ihd) antibody syndrome (aPL)
A disease that causes problems in the inner lining of blood vessels resulting in blood clots in arteries or veins.
The immune system attacks and destroys the liver cells. This can lead to scarring and hardening of the liver, and possibly liver failure.
A disease in which people can’t tolerate gluten, a substance found in wheat, rye, and barley, and also some medicines. When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products that have gluten, the immune system responds by damaging the lining of the small intestines.
Diabetes type 1
A disease in which your immune system attacks the cells that make insulin, a hormone needed to control blood sugar levels. As a result, your body cannot make insulin. Without insulin, too much sugar stays in your blood. Too high blood sugar can hurt the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. But the most serious problem caused by diabetes is heart disease.
Graves’ disease (overactive thyroid)
A disease that causes the thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone.
Guillain-Barre (GEE-yahn bah-RAY) syndrome
The immune system attacks the nerves that connect your brain and spinal cord with the rest of your body. Damage to the nerves makes it hard for them to transmit signals. As a result, the muscles have trouble responding to the brain.
Symptoms often progress relatively quickly, over a period of days or weeks, and often occur on both sides of the body.
Hashimoto’s (hah-shee-MOH-tohz) disease (underactive thyroid)
A disease that causes the thyroid to not make enough thyroid hormone.
Hemolytic anemia (HEE-moh-lit-ihk uh-NEE-mee-uh)
The immune system destroys the red blood cells. Yet the body can’t make new red blood cells fast enough to meet the body’s needs. As a result, your body does not get the oxygen it needs to function well, and your heart must work harder to move oxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (id-ee-oh-PATH-ihk throm-boh-seye-toh-PEE-nik PUR-pur-uh) (ITP)
A disease in which the immune system destroys blood platelets, which are needed for blood to clot.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
A disease that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. Crohn’s (krohnz) disease and ulcerative colitis (UHL-sur-uh-tiv koh-LEYE-tuhss) are the most common forms of IBD.
Some people also have:
Inflammatory myopathies (meye-OP-uh-theez)
A group of diseases that involve muscle inflammation and muscle weakness. Polymyositis (pol-ee-meye-uh-SYT-uhss) and dermatomyositis (dur-muh-toh-meye-uh-SYT-uhss) are 2 types more common in women than men.
May also have:
Multiple sclerosis (MUHL-tip-uhl sklur-OH-suhss) (MS)
A disease in which the immune system attacks the protective coating around the nerves. The damage affects the brain and spinal cord.
Myasthenia gravis (meye-uhss-THEEN-ee-uh GRAV-uhss) (MG)
A disease in which the immune system attacks the nerves and muscles throughout the body.
Primary biliary cirrhosis (BIL-ee-air-ee sur-ROH-suhss)
The immune system slowly destroys the liver’s bile ducts. Bile is a substance made in the liver. It travels through the bile ducts to help with digestion. When the ducts are destroyed, the bile builds up in the liver and hurts it. The damage causes the liver to harden and scar, and eventually stop working.
A disease that causes new skin cells that grow deep in your skin to rise too fast and pile up on the skin surface.
Rheumatoid arthritis (ROO-muh-toid ar-THREYE-tuhss)
A disease in which the immune system attacks the lining of the joints throughout the body.
A disease causing abnormal growth of connective tissue in the skin and blood vessels.
Sjögren’s (SHOH-grins) syndrome
A disease in which the immune system targets the glands that make moisture, such as tears and saliva.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (LOO-puhss ur-ih-thee-muh-TOH-suhss)
A disease that can damage the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, and other parts of the body. Also called SLE or lupus.
The immune system destroys the cells that give your skin its color. It also can affect the tissue inside your mouth and nose.
Are chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia autoimmune diseases?
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia (feye-broh-meye-AL-juh) (FM) are not autoimmune diseases. But they often have symptoms of some autoimmune disease, like being tired all the time and pain.
CFS can cause you to be very tired, have trouble concentrating, feel weak, and have muscle pain. Symptoms of CFS come and go. The cause of CFS is not known.
FM is a disorder in which pain or tenderness is felt in multiple places all over the body. These “tender points” are located on the neck, shoulders, back, hips, arms, and legs and are painful when pressure is applied to them. Other symptoms include fatigue, trouble sleeping, and morning stiffness. FM mainly occurs in women of childbearing age. But children, the elderly, and men are sometimes can also get it. The cause is not known.
How do I find out if I have an autoimmune disease?
Getting a diagnosis can be a long and stressful process. Although each autoimmune disease is unique, many share some of the same symptoms. And many symptoms of autoimmune diseases are the same for other types of health problems too. This makes it hard for doctors to find out if you really have an autoimmune disease, and which one it might be. But if you are having symptoms that bother you, it’s important to find the cause. Don’t give up if you’re not getting any answers. You can take these steps to help find out the cause of your symptoms:
- Write down a complete family health history that includes extended family and share it with your doctor.
- Record any symptoms you have, even if they seem unrelated, and share it with your doctor.
- See a specialist who has experience dealing with your most major symptom. For instance, if you have symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, start with a gastroenterologist. Ask your regular doctor, friends, and others for suggestions.
- Get a second, third, or fourth opinion (PDF, 262 KB) if need be. If your doctor doesn’t take your symptoms seriously or tells you they are stress-related or in your head, see another doctor.
What types of doctors treat autoimmune diseases?
Juggling your health care needs among many doctors and specialists can be hard. But specialists, along with your main doctor, may be helpful in managing some symptoms of your autoimmune disease. If you see a specialist, make sure you have a supportive main doctor to help you. Often, your family doctor may help you coordinate care if you need to see one or more specialists. Here are some specialists who treat autoimmune diseases:
- Nephrologist. A doctor who treats kidney problems, such as inflamed kidneys caused by lupus. Kidneys are organs that clean the blood and produce urine.
- Rheumatologist. A doctor who treats arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, such as scleroderma and lupus.
- Endocrinologist. A doctor who treats gland and hormone problems, such as diabetes and thyroid disease.
- Neurologist. A doctor who treats nerve problems, such as multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis.
- Hematologist. A doctor who treats diseases that affect blood, such as some forms of anemia.
- Gastroenterologist. A doctor who treats problems with the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
- Dermatologist. A doctor who treats diseases that affect the skin, hair, and nails, such as psoriasis and lupus.
- Physical therapist. A health care worker who uses proper types of physical activity to help patients with stiffness, weakness, and restricted body movement.
- Occupational therapist. A health care worker who can find ways to make activities of daily living easier for you, despite your pain and other health problems. This could be teaching you new ways of doing things or how to use special devices. Or suggesting changes to make in your home or workplace.
- Speech therapist. A health care worker who can help people with speech problems from illness such as multiple sclerosis.
- Audiologist. A health care worker who can help people with hearing problems, including inner ear damage from autoimmune diseases.
- Vocational therapist. A health care worker who offers job training for people who cannot do their current jobs because of their illness or other health problems. You can find this type of person through both public and private agencies.
- Counselor for emotional support. A health care worker who is specially trained to help you to find ways to cope with your illness. You can work through your feelings of anger, fear, denial, and frustration.
Text taken from womenshealth.gov
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health